Now we know what to do with all the CO2!
Each signatory company is a specialist in their own field: Royal Vopak in the storage of bulk liquids, Anthony Veder in the transport of liquefied gases in gas tankers, Air Liquide masters in the field of industrial gases, ranging from purification and liquefaction to transport and Gasunie a specialist in the field of gas infrastructure and distribution (pipelines).
The Rotterdam Plan has five steps: (1) CO2 is captured from industrial emissions. (2) After its capture, pure CO2 gas is transported to the envisaged distribution hub(s) in gaseous or liquid form. (3) From the hub, the gaseous CO2 is transported to depleted gas fields through existing pipeline networks, or is condensed into a liquid at the hub and stored temporarily in reservoirs. (4) Liquefied CO2 is transferred into special gas tanker ships. (5) Ships take the CO2 to the injection point at sea, and link up with redundant gas fields for permanent storage. Alternatively the gas is used in partially depleted oil fields to extract unrecoverable oil (Enhanced Oil Recovery).
We hope that Rotterdam achieves its objective and through its example shows a way for others to follow.